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Citizenship DocumentLearning about your ancestors’ citizenship and naturalization through genealogical research is fascinating. When did your family come to America’s shores? There are many ways to learn this information, from immigration records to mining family lore. But another important question that many beginning researchers miss is when and if your immigrant ancestors became naturalized. Naturalization is the process where someone formally becomes a US citizen. Here is a closer look at how to navigate naturalization documentation.

Derivative citizenship

One of the most important concepts to understand about naturalization is that of derivative citizenship. The idea is simple: between 1790 and 1922, citizenship was automatically given to the wife of any man who became a US citizen. The same provisions were automatically made until 1940 for minor children below age 21. Unfortunately, the names or demographic details of wives and children were not always recorded – either in the requests for naturalization that were filed or in the subsequent government records. If your ancestor was an immigrant female that married an already naturalized male, she automatically received citizenship and there are unlikely to be specific records of that.

Records varied widely

1906 was a game changing year for naturalization. In September of that year, the Basic Naturalization Act streamlined the naturalization process and centralized that authority with the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. Today that branch of the government is known as U.S. Citizenship and Immigrations Services (USCIS). Before that date, records of naturalization could be handled by any court including local, county, state, federal, criminal, or marine. Further, no uniform forms or process was used. After the Basic Naturalization Act, the vast majority of petitions were managed in federal court.

The revised process was more uniform

After 1906, the revised process for naturalization became more uniform and followed a predictable pattern. Luckily for genealogical researchers, this streamlined the paper trail as well. The first step was to file first papers, or a Declaration of Intention, usually soon after arrival in the United States. The final filing from the petitioner was made after residency requirements had been fulfilled, and this was also known as the formal Naturalization Petition. If the application was approved, a Certificate of Naturalization would be issued.

Sometimes the census holds a clue

If you’re having trouble tracking down specific records, check the Census. In 1870, the Census has a column for non-native males over the age of 21 who had been naturalized. A checked box would indicated naturalization prior to that year. Between 1900 and 1930, the census asked for the naturalization status and used abbreviations including Na. (naturalized), Pa. (paperwork file), and Ai. (alien resident). Sometimes language barriers, lack of education on the topic, or other motives may have encouraged people to self-report incorrect information on the census however.

Challenges with naturalization records

Besides the issues described above, researchers often find a number of other challenges with naturalization records. One is that the initial papers may have been filed in a different court than where the naturalization was granted, as your ancestor migrated. The result could be a trail that runs cold. Other issues include errors – whether honest mistakes or purposefully fudged details for whatever reason – on the court paperwork. Applicants have been known to change everything from name to date of birth to dates and locations of arrival for any number of reasons.

Still, even with all the flaws in our naturalization process record keeping, finding these rare glimpses into the steps your ancestors took to become citizens can be deeply rewarding. If you’re interested in learning more or want professional genealogical assistance, contact Price & Associates today to arrange for a personalized consultation.

Extended FamilyUnderstanding cousins and extended family relationships can be one of the more archaic aspects of genealogical research. When your explorations move beyond your direct ancestors to encompass what their siblings or other children might have done, you invariably find someone who has lived a fascinating life. Then you start trying to puzzle out how you’re related. You’ve probably heard the term “third cousin, five times removed” used in at least one Downton Abbey episode. But what does that really mean?

The basics of cousin relationships

When you first think of your cousins, you probably think of the children of your mother’s or father’s siblings. These first cousins are a great illustration of cousin principles. Cousins have a common ancestor, and the level of “cousinhood” is determined by how many generations back the common ancestor was. For example, first cousins share two common grandparents, second cousins a common great-grandparent, third cousins share a great-great-grandparent, and so forth.

Understanding “removes”

A cousin will be “removed” if there is a difference in the number of generations between them and the shared ancestor. Consider two people who are first cousins, John and Jared. If John has a child, Becky, then that child becomes a first cousin once removed from Jared. This is because John and Jared share a common grandparent. But Jared’s and Becky’s relationship to the common ancestor is different, namely it’s Jared’s grandparent and Becky’s great-grandparent. If Jared also has a child, then that child and Becky would be second cousins. To simplify things, the term “removed” can typically be interpreted to mean generational differences. Two levels of generational differences would be described as “twice removed” and so forth.

Determining cousinhood without getting confused

There are a number of reasons that people want to understand cousinhood. In many cases, it’s simply to help make sense of genealogical information. In other cases, it’s for presentations or even for use in heir research cases. The simplest way to definitively determine the relationship between two people is to create a comprehensive family tree. Start with your shared ancestor and then map out each generation until the people represented are listed. Now, count back the generations for each person to the shared ancestor. Note those numbers and compare. Are you the same generation or is there a mismatch? This information will determine both degree of cousinhood and if there are removals. If you’re struggling to visually quantify the relationships, a family relationship chart in the form of a tale can be helpful to map out

If you still have questions, this family relationships chart from Family History Magazine is a helpful reference material to have on hand when exploring this issue. Do you need assistance navigating a specific genealogical research question? Contact us today to discuss your specific research needs and how the Price and Associates team can help. Our services range from full-scale research projects to brief consultations to answer questions and help researchers understand everything from using genealogical databases to understanding cousin relationships.

Old glasses on the vintage documentThe census can offer you an intimate look at your ancestors’ lives in ten year increments. Typically, researchers focus on getting to know specific ancestors through their birth records, death records, and marriage certificates. While these details are excellent for putting a boundary around a person’s lifespan, they don’t tell you as much about their day to day lives. In contrast, the census can tell you where your ancestors lived, what they did for work, whether they were veterans, and more. Here’s a closer look at what the census is, the kinds of information that it contains, and how to use it in your genealogical research project.

The History of the Census

Many governments have used a census to help count their citizens and learn more information about them, including demographics, economics, and health data. The United States implemented its first formal, national census in 1790. The objective was simple: to understand who lived in the newly formed nation and how best to organize the nation’s services. From there, a new Federal census has been conducted every ten years. While the information that’s been collected has changed somewhat, the census offers a fair number of insights. By Federal law, the census can’t be released for 72 years after it has been completed to protect respondent privacy. The most recent census details available are from 1940, which were released in 2012.

The Types of Census Information Researchers Gather

Individual event records, such as a birth certificate, marriage information, or wills are often the best information that researchers can access. But a census collects additional information about their lives including job status, whether they could read and write, and whether they owned their homes. The census also provides context by allowing you to see that information for all of the members of a family, to put trends into perspective.

In the 1930s, for example, the census was influenced by the Depression. Questionnaires began to ask about income levels and whether people were seeking work. It’s also possible to look at factors such as where respondents were born, where their parents were born, how long they were married and so forth. Often, you can garner dates and locations of birth or a general timeframe for marriage that makes it possible to find other supporting records that otherwise prove elusive.

Seeing the Trends in the Census

Using the census to track your family’s evolution in ten year increments can provide valuable insights. Did your ancestors put down roots in one area, or move around a lot? Did family units remain the same, with children moving out on a schedule that makes sense or did families live together in multi-generational homes? Can you see an ancestor’s wealth grow or career progress, or their fortunes take a downturn by following them through the census? In many cases, it’s possible to “check in” on each ancestor via the census between their birth and their death. One note, however: if your ancestor lived in 1890, with the exception of around 6000 records, you’ll be unable to view their entry. The records from that census were lost in a natural disaster, tragically.

Do you need assistance with a genealogical research project? Contact us today to learn more about how Price & Associates’ experienced team can help you find your relatives through the census and other records.

Old DocumentGenealogical records are the lifeblood of most research efforts. As researchers, we rely on everything from birth certificates to ship manifests to track down the life stories of the people that came before us. Thanks to the proliferation of technology and the growing interest in genealogical digitization, a large number of collections and records are available with a search and a click. But in many cases, not everything is available online. Small towns, older records, and remote locations haven’t come online yet. If you’re trying to track down a record that falls into a non-digitized category, what steps should you take to track them down?

Prepare your information before you reach out

The more specific the information that you can provide, the better chance you have of finding the records that you seek. If you know from other sources that you’re looking for the birth certificate of a “Robert Jones Smith, born in Boston on May 7th, 1850 to Robert Sr. and Mary (formerly Jones)” you’re much more likely to track down the record. That’s, of course, the ideal scenario. In other cases, you may not have all the information at the ready. But the more details you have regarding names, dates, locations, other families, occupation and religion, the more effective you’ll be.

Determine where the records are held

Your next step is going to be determining where the records are held. It’s hard to give a list of resources on this topic, as it varies widely by record type, region, country, time period, and more. However, start your search in the following way. If you know that there are national level records, investigate the archives and available indexes to see what’s held at that level. Then work your way down to the state, province or equivalent level. Next, try the county level. Many records, especially land and probate records, are kept on the county level. Finally, determine if the records would have been kept locally.

It’s also helpful to differentiate if you’re looking for records that would typically be recorded by the state or by the local church. Remember that local records may have been moved if towns consolidated or parishes merged. But this gives you a framework to understand how records are organized, and a starting point to plan your outreach to see what’s available.

Send your request in writing if at all possible

At a recent genealogy conference, an accomplished professional gave excellent advice to an eager attendee. Her recommendation was to send her request for assistance and records in writing, either by email or by post. When the younger woman pressed and said that using the phone would be faster, the genealogist shared an experience tracking down some records in Wales. They were held at the local church. The church had no staff except a clergyman who ministered to several congregations in the area. He was happy to help, but needed to prioritize accordingly.

Send a brief but clear note that explains who you are, what you’re looking for, whatever background information you have, and a straightforward explanation of the end result that you’re hoping for (e.g. a photocopy or scan of an original birth certificate, for example). Provide contact information (phone and email is best, where possible) for follow up questions and of course, offer to pay any fees associated with the transaction. Finally, take a moment for a kind word, to offer your thanks and explain what this means to you or your family. Appealing to the person at the other end of the line is always a great idea.

Work with a local researcher

If you’re seeking records that are physically archived at another location, one of the best steps you can take is to work with a local professional researcher. In many cases, obtaining the records in question is much faster or only possible if you visit the town hall, archive, or library in person. A local genealogist will charge an hourly rate or a flat fee to physically go to that location and make a copy of the record that you’re looking for. It’s important when you’re hiring an overseas genealogist to select a reputable person. One of the easiest ways to do this is to partner with a firm in the US that maintains a global network of expert researchers to use selectively on projects as needed.

Just because the records you’re seeking are not available online shouldn’t dissuade you from going after them. Follow the process outlined above, and allow adequate time for research, correspondence, and follow up. If you need help with a genealogical research project, contact us today to learn more about how our team of experienced researchers can help you locate even the hardest to find genealogical records.

Family ReunionA family history presentation is a great way to share what you’ve learned. If you come from a large family, chances are that your aunts, uncles, cousins, and even your own descendants are spread out across the state or country. Once, it was easy to get everyone together for Sunday dinner and share the latest news. Today, we rely on Facebook and infrequent emails to keep us connected and reinforce those family bonds. But if you’re interested in genealogy, you may be considering a family reunion. Not only will you get to see long lost relatives and receive updates on cousins you lost track of, but this could be the perfect venue to share your passion for genealogy and ignite the interest of other relatives and younger generations.

How common are family reunions?

You may be wondering if it’s even a good idea to propose a family reunion. After all, if you don’t have a standing tradition of doing so, it’s going to take a lot of communication and preparation to do so. Still, the statistics suggest that reunions are popular and possible to pull together with some planning. According to the organization Group Travel, most family reunions occur in the summer. It’s usually best to give yourself between 12 and 18 months lead time to get on everyone’s schedule and allow for event planning and travel logistics. Most events are big success. 57% of those surveyed had between 50 and 149 attendees. If you’ve decided to go ahead with planning a reunion, here are some fun ideas to incorporate genealogy as a central theme of the get-together.

Ways to introduce genealogy into the program

It’s important to make genealogy just one aspect of a bigger agenda. Family reunions are about creating ties between living members, after all. However, there is probably no better venue for getting together a group of people interested in their ancestry. The key is to avoid long, dry presentations. Instead, focus on the most interesting parts and break up individual subjects that will allow guest to self-select their participation.

Consider a short presentation and a Q&A:

Consider giving a highlights presentation that offers insights into high-level topics that everyone is likely to find interesting. What countries did your ancestors come from? When did they arrive in the United States, and what general paths have they taken across the country? Do you have any notable connections or famous ancestors? Were there any fascinating people in your lineage or funny stories that you could share? Illustrate your presentation with a simple PowerPoint presentation that features photos, maps, and copies of documents for more visually-oriented guests.

Set up an info table:

Consider manning an information table for people that want to learn more. Bring copies of core documents and photographs. Don’t bring originals or your only copies, in case they get lost or someone wanders away with them. You can focus your conversations on the topics that interest your relatives, talk about the research process, and use it as command central to talk with family members you have questions for. Display items such as family antiques, historical wedding dresses, or portraits of ancestors to draw people in.

Create a giveaway:

Often, family reunions involve some kind of take home gift that could include a jar of Grandma’s signature preserves or a simple T-shirt that boasts surnames. Consider adding some sort of genealogy-themed item. This could include a small collection of photograph copies of ancestors printed into postcards or a short narrative that you’ve written up to accompany your presentation. Don’t forget to add any requests that you might have, such as information on specific ancestors or offering to act as a repository for your family’s historical photos.

Fun activities for kids:

Another tip is to offer stations with age appropriate activities for kids. For example, you might have a coloring station where kids can make paper dolls from specific eras and tell little stories that relate to your family history. Another idea is to ask a crafty family member to make some simple costumes from different countries or time periods, and invite kids to put on a play. Make genealogy fun as a gateway to exploration and discussion.

Are you considering a family history presentation at your next reunion? A professional genealogist can help you prepare or even give the presentation. Contact us at Price & Associates today to arrange for a personalized consultation and discuss how we can help make your get together memorable with a family history presentation.